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References

1. Ariaratnam CA, Mayar WP, Perera G, Eddleston M, Kularatne SAM, Attapattu W et al. A new monospecific ovine FAB fragment antivenom for treatment of envenoming by the Sri Lankan Russell’s viper (Daboia Russlii Russelii): A prelimenary dose finding study and pharmacokinetic study. The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1999;61 (2): 259- 265.

2. Ariaratnam CA, Sjostrom L, Raziek Z, Kularatne SAM, Kodikara arachchi RWK, Sheriff MHR, et al. An open, randomized comparative trial of two antivenoms for the treatment of envenoming by Sri Lankan Russell’s viper (Daboia Russelli Russelli). Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2001; 95: 74-80.

3. De Silva Anslem. Bungarus caeruleus: Its ecology and bite in Sri Lanka In: Gopolakrishnakoon P, Tan C K,ed. Recent Advances in Toxicology Research. Singapore:Venom and Toxin Research Group, National University,1992.

4. De Silva Anslem. Snake bite in Anuradhapura district. The Snake 1981;13:117- 130.

5. De Silva Anslem. Venomous snakes, their bites and treatment in Sri Lanka In: Gopolakrishnakoon P, Chou LM,ed. Snakes of medical importance (Asia - Pacific region). Singapore:Venom and Toxin Research Group, National University,1990:479.

6. De Silva HJ, Fonseka MMD, Gunatilake SB, Kularatne SAM, Sellahewa KH. Anti-venom for snakebite in Sri Lanka. The Ceylon Medical Journal 2002; 47(2): 43-45.

7. De Silva PHDH. Snake fauna of Sri Lanka with special references to skull, dentition and venom in snake. National Museum of Sri Lanka.1980;102-106.

8. Indika Bandara Gawarammana, S Abeysinghe M Kularatne, Wasantha P Dissanayake, Ranjith PV Kumarasiri, Nimal Senanayake, H Ariyasesna. Parallel infusion of hydrocortisone ± chlorpheniramine bolus injection to prevent acute adverse reactions to antivenom for snake bites. A randomized, double- blind, placebo-controlled study. The Medical Journal of Australia2004;180:20-23.

9. Kularatne SAM, Clinical profile of snake envenoming: A study in North Central Province of Sri Lanka. The 23rd Bibile Memorial Oration in 2001.Sri Lanka Journal of Medicine2001;10(1):4-12.

10. Kularatne SAM, Ratnatunga N. Autopsy study of common krait (Bungarus caeruleus) bit victims In: De Silva Anslem, ed. The herpetology of Sri Lanka: Current Research (including the proceedings of the Fourth World Congress of Herpetology, Sri Lankan papers and Nilgala expedition papers). Lyriocephalus special issue2004; 5: 48.

11. Kularatne SAM, Ratnatunge N. Severe systemic effects of Merrem’s hump nosed viper bite. The Ceylon Medical Journal 1999; 44(4): 169 –170.

12. Kularatne SAM, Gawarammana IB. Monosystemic effects of Russell’s viper envenomation in Sri Lanka: isolated nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity and haematotoxicity. In: De Silva Anslem, ed. The herpetology of Sri Lanka: Current Research (including the proceedings of the Fourth World Congress of Herpetology, Sri Lankan papers and Nilgala expedition papers). Lyriocephalus special issue2004;5: 45.

13. Kularatne SAM. Common krait (Bungrus caeruleus) bite in Anuradhapura,Sri Lanka: a prospective clinical study, 1996-98. Postgraduate Medical Journal 2002;78(919):276-280.

14. Kularatne SAM. Bungrus caeruleus envenoming: some postmortum findings.Lyriocephulus 1997; 3(2): 30.

15. Kularatne SAM. Common krait (Bungrus caeruleus) length of the snake vs severity of envenoming. Proceeding of the 24th Annual Academic Sessions of the Kandy Society of Medicine 2002: 59.

16. Kularatne SAM. Common krait bite in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka: retrospective study-1995 In: De Silva Anslem, ed. Biology and Conservation of the Amphibians, Reptiles and their Habitats in South Asia: Amphibia and Reptile Research Organization of Sri Lanka 1998: 331-338.

17. Kularatne SAM. De Silva A. A bite by a non-venomous colubrid snake (Elaphe helena) In: De Silva Anslem, ed. Biology and Conservation of the Amphibians, Reptiles and their Habitats in South Asia: Amphibia and Reptile Research Organization of Sri Lanka 1998:331-338.

18. Kularatne SAM. Epidemiology and clinical picture of the Russell’s viper (Daboia Russelii Russelii) bite in Anuradhapura,Sri Lanka: A prospective study of 336 Patients. The southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2003; 34(4):855-862.

19. Kularatne SAM. Epidemiology, clinical features and management of common krait bite: a prospective study. The Ceylon Journal of Medical Science 1998; 41(2):53-60.

20. Kularatne SAM. Reactions to Snake Venom Antisera: Study of pattern, severity and management at General Hospital, Anuradhapura. Sri Lanka Journal of Medicine 2000;9(1): 8-13.

21. Kularatne.SAM. Practical aspect of management of snake bite. The GMOA Medical Journal 1997; 1: 35-37.

22. Kularatne.SAM. Unidentified snake bite with “Pure Nephrotoxicity” The Ceylon Medical journal 1995; 40: 45.

23. PremawardeneAP, de Silva CE, Fonseka MMD, Gunathilake SB, de Silva HJ. Low dose subcutaneous adrenaline to prevent acute adverse reactions to antivenom serum in people bitten by snakes; randomized, placebo controlled trial. British Medical Jounal 1999;318: 1041- 1045.

24. Wall F (1921) Ophidia Taprobanica or the Snake of Ceylon. Colombo: Cottle HR,1921.

Pushpakumara SKS, Kularatne SAM, Dissanayake WP, Ariyasena H. Lesson learnt from fatal snake bites: A five year audit of General Hospital,Anuradhapura. Sri Lanka Journal of Medicine 2004; 13(2): 44- 46.

Kularatne SAM, Kumarasiri PRV, Pushpakumara SKC, Dissanayake WP, Ariyasena H, Gawarammana IB, Senanayake N. Routine antibiotic therapy in the management of the local inflammatory swelling in venomous snakebites: results of placebo-controlled study. The Ceylon Medical Journal 2005; 50(4): 151-155.

Kularatne SAM. Synopsis of snakebite and the management. The Bulletin of the Sri Lanka Society of Critical Care and Emergency medicine. 2007: 23-24.

Ariaratnam CA, Thuraisingam V, Kularatne SAM, Sheriff MHR, Theakston RDG, de Silva A, Warrell DA. Frequent and potentially fatal envenoming by hump-nose pit vipers(Hypnale hypnale and H.nepa) in Sri Lanka: lack of effective antivenom. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2008;

Kularatne SAM. Handbook on the Management of Snake Bite in Sri Lanka, 2004.

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